Diagnostic Services
 

Biopsy is a small procedure where a bit of tissue is taken from the nodes or other parts of the body which are suspected to have a tumor, and sent for testing. Tissue taken from the nodes can be processed in a lab, and presented to a pathologist. The pathologist looks at this tissue under a microscope and identifies what kind of disease is present.

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simpler procedure where a fine needle is used to suck out some cells from the nodes or tissues which require testing. It hardly causes any pain, and is a quick procedure. But this test is not as good as a biopsy for initially diagnosing Lymphoma. The sucked out cells in the FNAC cannot always tell us the exact type of Lymphoma it is. For some tumors where a biopsy cannot be performed easily, this test is used to get tissue for testing.

The amount of Doppler shift can be calculated by the Doppler equation. The clinical implication of this is that if we know the frequency shift, we can calculate the velocity of blood flow. Continuous wave Doppler uses two Doppler crystals – one acting as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. Because of the continuous mode of transmitting and receiving, information about blood flow is obtained all along the ultrasound beam without any indication of the depth from which this information comes. Pulsed wave Doppler emits multiple small pulses of ultrasound beams which reach the sampling point and return, giving information of blood flow only in the area of interest. 
Reaching nodes and tumors deep in the body:
Sometimes large lymph nodes or other affected parts which need testing may be present deep inside the body where a simple biopsy cannot be performed. The doctor may then take the help of a radiologist to scan the body and guide a needle to the exact portion which has the tumor to be excised. The needle can then suck out tissue which can be sent to the pathologist for testing.